Web Dictionary

-A- Anchor (Anchor) It is still a special link used not for redirecting to another page but for redirecting within the same page. It is still a useful tool for making shortcuts in the case of a page whose content cannot be fully brought to the visitor's attention.

ASCII ASCII stands for American Standard Code of Information Interchange. The standard ASCII code is a set of 128 characters, of which 95 printables and 35 special characters, which can be encoded by one byte (values from 0 to 127). The extended ASCII code includes, besides the standard set of characters specific to different languages, reaching a total of 256 characters, using the same octet as the unit of measure of the memory space used.

Authentication Authentication is the general term for the identity confirmation procedure, which is necessary for controlling unauthorized access to certain resources. An example is access to certain sections of a site based on a combination of the password entered by the visitor in the authentication process.

Avatar An avatar is a relatively small picture or animation for personalizing and identifying members within a virtual community. They are most often used in forums or in real-time messaging programs.

- B - Banner The banner is an image, rarely a flash or other object, placed on a site for advertising purposes.

BBS BBS stands for Bulletin Board System. It is represented by a computer accessible through an internet connection and running the necessary software to allow clients to upload / download information and / or exchange messages between them.

BinHex BinHex, short for "binary-to-hexadecimal", is a system for converting files from binary to hexadecimal. Originally, it was used on Mac OS to send binary files via email. Although it takes up more space than the original files, hexadecimal files are more secure in terms of information corruption.

bit The bit is the basic unit of information storage in binary systems. A bit can have only two values, zero and one. An 8-bit set forms a Byte.

Blog A blog is an online journal, in most cases public. Information is often centered on a particular topic, domain, event or simply a personal journal. Updating a blog is called generic blogging and can be assisted by certain semi-automatic programs that are easy to use.

broadband In the Internet domain, the term broadband is used for high-speed connections, compared to dial-up connections. An example of this is DSL or cable connections.

browser A browser is a program that allows a user to explore a structure of interconnected objects. In particular, a web browser is used for viewing and browsing websites.

Byte (Octect) A Byte is an 8-bit structure and the usual unit of measurement of storage space on digital computers, together with its multiples: 1KB = 1024 Bytes, 1MB = 1024 KB.

- C - Email Client A program for reading and sending emails using an internet connection and a set of information transfer standards such as POP3 or SMTP.

CMS (content management system) CMS comes from the English language from Content Management System and is also found in the form of SMC (Content Management Systems). CMS is a software web system that is used to assist its users in the content management process.

Code (code) Generic term that refers to a source text written in a certain programming language.

Asynchronous Connection A connection is called asynchronous when the communication between the two parts is performed without synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver.

Permanent Connection (Direct Connection) A connection is called permanent when access to the internet does not depend on a daily schedule or other such restrictions.

Synchronous Connection A connection is called synchronous when the sender and receiver perform the sending / receiving of data only at certain time intervals, delimited by a clock signal, common to both parties.

Counter Regarding a website, it defines a script that keeps track of the number of visitors and, optionally, it can create statistics regarding the browser used by the visitor, the page from which it was redirected, etc.

cookie The term cookie refers to a set of data stored on the personal computer by a script. A cookie may have a certain lifetime or the browser user may opt to disable them. This data can be used, for example, for automatic authentication on a site, but this method represents a security risk on a computer that other people have access to.

Encryption Name the reversible process by which the information is transformed into an unintelligible form based on an algorithm and a key known only to those to whom this information is addressed.

CSS (Cascade Style Sheet) CSS is a formatting language for web pages written in HTML. It is becoming more and more widespread due to the efficiency and compatibility with most web browsers.

Keyword (keyword) A keyword is a word to which a certain meaning is assigned, which identifies a certain information or document. Searching for a site using a search engine is based on keywords to identify that page.

- D - DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) A protocol by which a computer obtains a dynamic IP from a server that has a list of available addresses.

Dial-up (Dial-up connection) A type of Internet connection that is used by the telephone line through a modem. Usually this type of connection supports low transfer speeds, especially compared to a cable connection.

DNS (Domain Name System) A system composed of several servers whose main task is to associate the URLs with real IP addresses. A DNS server is responsible for providing a client with the IP address of a specific URL upon request. The need for this system is a direct consequence of the fact that a computer is identified on the Internet through a unique IP address.

Domain The domain is a unique name by which a web resource is identified (in most sites).

Download Defines the action of copying a file from a web server. It usually has the meaning of a file available for copying from the server.

- E - e-commerce (e-commerce) Generic term, includes commercial activities of any kind carried out through or through the Internet.

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) It represents a set of standards that refers to the structuring of information to be transmitted between and within groups, companies, organizations. There are companies that offer EDI services, that is, they carry out the interconnection of different equipment in order to transfer information between them.

- F - firewall Implemented hardware or software, a firewall is a mechanism created to protect a computer system from unauthorized access from outside or, on the contrary, to block the outside access of unauthorized programs.

Log file The file that records all the actions performed by a specific program.

Frame An html object that displays a web page. A web page can contain multiple frames, all behaving as separate web pages.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) A standard protocol for file transfer over the Internet. It is the most popular and widespread method of copying files from a web server.

- G - GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) Defines an image format that uses 8-bit per pixel encoding. Because the standard supports up to 256 colors in the RGB palette, it is used especially for small files where image compression can be done without loss of quality or with minor changes. In addition, it supports animations. Its top version is PNG format.

Graphic User Interface (GUI) Defines an interface based on graphic elements between an application and the user.

- H - HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) HTML is a language for description, structuring and formatting used on most websites.

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) It is a communication protocol commonly used on the Internet to access web pages.

- I - Load Balancing Sharing It is a method by which a group of tasks, processes, communications are distributed on multiple servers to prevent overloading. For example, a site may use multiple servers in case visitors are distributed on them to avoid overloading and blocking the site.

IP (Internet Protocol address) It represents a unique address by which a computer identifies itself on the Internet. IP addresses can be static or dynamic (it changes at each connection). An IP address consists of four numbers between 0 and 255 separated by a dot. A more particular address from this point of view is 127.0.0.1 (or localhost) which will always indicate the current computer.

Dynamic IP A dynamic IP address is the address obtained by the computer at every Internet connection, for example from a DHCP server.

ISP (Internet Service Provider) The company that deals with providing internet access to individuals or legal entities.

- J - Java An object-oriented high-level programming language. Its main advantage is the portability of a program written in this language on any platform that can run a Java virtual machine.

JavaScript A programming language used in web pages, without direct connection to Java language. A script written in this language will be executed on the client's computer by the browser, but the restrictions imposed do not give him the possibility to access the data from the client's computer.

JPG or JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) A standard with very good results when compressing image files. It is common for images on websites precisely because of the small file size.

- L - LAN (Local Area Network) Defines a local computer network. A LAN can access the Internet through a server.

Bandwidth The main attribute of an internet connection, the bandwidth is the amount of information that can be transferred over a communication channel within a selected time interval.

layout Regarding a website, a layout is the form of presentation of a web page, more precisely when arranging the elements on the page, the color scheme used, functional aspects, images used, everything that frames the content and defines a web page.

Link (Hyperlink) A text that represents a link to another page or web resource.

- M - Search Engine This expression defines a complex system used to search for a resource. In the field of the Internet we speak of sites such as Google, Yahoo, Altavista that specialize in searching web resources on the Internet starting from the keywords provided by a user.

MPG (MPEG - Moving Pictures Experts Group) A standard for compression of video files.

MySQL Database management system widely used and supported by most servers where you host your site.

- N - Surfing About a site: visiting component pages, not necessarily in a specific order.

Node Within a computer network, a node is a generic term for any equipment connected to that network, capable of communicating with other devices and which is identified by a unique IP.

Username Defines a unique identifier within a multi-user system, on a site or forum. It is used together with a password for authentication in order to access some resources.

- O - offline Describes the status of a network device that is unable to communicate.

online Describes the status of a network device that is capable of communicating at any given time.

- P - Home Page It represents the page displayed when accessing a domain.

Favorite Page (Bookmark) A shortcut to a web page, accessible from a browser.

Website (webpage) By definition it is a text file written in HTML on a web server.

Error pages It represents web pages that contain error messages and are automatically displayed when the browser encounters an error, for example, when the user tries to view a non-existent web page.

Spider (Spider) Generic name used for programs that search web pages by following all the links found on a previous page. Such programs are used especially by search engines to index web pages.

PDF (Portable Document Format) A standard for document files, owned by Adobe Systems. This format came from the need to produce documents that cannot be modified and, above all, can be viewed on any platform.

PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) It comes from English Hypertext Preprocessor. Programming language that brings the dynamics of a web page with the help of web applications.

POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) A communication protocol used by email clients to transfer data to and from the server through a TCP / IP connection.

Protocol A set of rules that define a certain method of communication.

Proxy (Proxy Server) A computer that mediates the access of a computer, or a computer network, to the Internet. A proxy can also provide other functions such as administrative control and caching for web resources.

- R - Reverse DNS Lookup A method by which a client obtains the URL associated with an IP address from a DNS server. This method is also called reverse resolving.

router A device in a network has the role of transmitting data packets on the most efficient route possible.

- S - script A small program written in source code. On the Internet, the most common scripts are written in Javascript and PHP.

Web server An internet-connected computer that provides clients with various web resources on request. In particular a server that hosts a web page.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) A protocol for sending / receiving an email used by an email client to communicate with a server.

OS-Operating System It is a program that manages the resources (hardware and software) of a computer. This program is itself a platform for the execution of other programs by a user.

socket It represents a terminal point through which a computer communicates. Specifically, a combination of the IP address, a port and the application that uses this port.

software Generic term for programs that a user uses.

Source (Source Code) The basic form in which a program is written before being translated into machine code. Source files are usually text files in which a specific syntax is applied to a programming language.

- T - T T1, T3 (T-1, T-3) High speed communication lines 10Mbps and 100Mbps respectively.

- U - Upload The operation of copying files from the client to the server.

URL - Uniform Resource Locator (URI - Uniform Resource Identifier) A maximum of 255 characters used to uniquely identify a web resource. A URL is made up of several parts: protocol (http: //), domain (www.webinvent.ro), path to a particular file (/), and the name of the respective file (index.php or index.html).

End-user It represents the person who buys software to use it himself.

- W - Web (WWW - World Wide Web) All the computers connected to the internet and the available web resources.

- X - XML - eXtensible Markup Language A formatting language used especially for web pages. The feature is the user's ability to declare their own tags for defining, transmitting, validating and interpreting data.

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